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Backward Glance and Forward Look in Forestry by K. D. Swan

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Backward Glance and Forward Look in Forestry


By K. D. Swan

          There is no crowd gathered on the ground twenty-five hundred feet below – no people with up-turned, staring faces waiting to see the show. Just trees. Countless numbers of trees. Trees which from this elevation seem to form a green carpet over the ridges and slopes. In one spot a wisp of smoke curls up from the green timber.

          The man standing in the door of the plane, looking like a Frankenstein in his padded canvas suit is not a trained professional jumper playing for the plaudits of the crowd. Neither is there anything of the hero complex in his attitude. He is just one of many smokechasers who find employment with Forest Service each summer putting out fires in the back country. He is here, of his own free will and accord, eager to do his part in trying out a new idea in the technique of fire control.

          He stands there looking down, waiting for the right moment to bail out. Right hand tightly clutching the rip cord handle, left grasping the door frame to steady himself to the iron step. A word is spoken and the motor is cut out. There is no hesitation, no holding back – he has gone.

          We lose sight of him for a few seconds as he plummets downward. And then we see a chute as it blossoms out like some great flower. Downward it sails, a glorious thing in the sunlight, giving pinions to its rider as he guides its course toward a landing in the treetops. We watch it as it settles gracefully into the green canopy of the forest, and know that all is well.

          A few minutes later we pick up a radio message from the small set which this man carries, telling us the fire can be easily handled with the proper tools. These are soon landed by a smaller parachute improvised from burlap and rope. A new idea in forest fire control is coming to fruition!


Unthought of 30 Years Ago

Thirty years ago the use of parachutes, airplanes, and radio in forest fire control was unthought of. Nor did anyone envisage the great system of truck trails which makes it possible to get men and supplies into the back country in a fraction of the time formerly necessary. Who could have foreseen that in 1940 a large percentage of our forest areas would have been mapped from the air? As late as 1930 the accurate measurement of fire danger was considered a fantasy.

          These are only a few of the things that old-timers in the service never dreamed of – the inventions which made them possible were not in fact perfected to the point of practicability.

          But the old-timers were men of vision and knew they were headed in the right direction, even though they did not know what their ultimate destination was to be. The Forest Service has always been alert to adapt and develop new ideas and new materials to fit its needs. Members of the service feel that a certain spirit which says, “You say it can’t be done, but we’ll try, nevertheless,” has gone a long way in carrying the organization forward toward its goal.


Objectives Stated

          What is this goal? Let’s go back to a letter written in 1905 by James W. Wilson, then secretary of Agriculture, to the forester. He said, in part, “In the administration of the forest reserves (national forests since 1907), it must be clearly borne in mind that all land is to be devoted to its most productive use for the permanent good of the whole people, and not for the temporary benefit of individuals or companies. All the resources of the forest reserves are for use, and this use must be brought about in a thoroughly prompt and businesslike manner, under such restrictions only as will insure the permanence of these resources.”


Some Early History

          It seems a far cry from the present well-knit organization which is taken for granted as a part of the economic life of not only Missoula and vicinity, but throughout all the parts of the West, and some of the Middle West and East as well, to the humble beginnings more than four decades ago. Then little definite information was available about the forests; they were largely areas of undeveloped wilderness, unmapped, and heretofore penetrated only by hardy prospectors, hunters and trappers. The first rangers were practical woodsmen, resourceful, dependable, but untrained in most cases in any of the aspects of forestry practice.

          Washington’s birthday, February 22, 1897, saw the creation of the first forest reserves in Montana. These included the old Lewis & Clark (a mighty stretch of country which took in most of the present Flathead national forest and Glacier national park), and Bitter Root reserve which included the country from the Lolo trail south to Salmon river in Idaho, and the eastern slopes of the Bitter Root mountains in Montana. Contemplating the scope of these old reserves, largely unknown and unadministered, leaves one rather breathless!

          The next oldest forests in the state are the Elkhorn, now in the Helena forest, the Absaroka, the Little Belt, now part of the present Lewis and Clark forest, the Kootenai, and the Madison. They were withdrawn during the period 1900 to 1902.


Others Established Later

          Most of the other Montana forests were established from 1905 – 1906. During the years 1903 and 1904, Gifford Pinchot, who had been appointed chief forester in 1898, had men all over the West making examinations of areas of public lands considered desirable for forest reserves. As fast as the reports came in from these men, the Forest Service rushed recommendations to President Roosevelt, who issued the necessary proclamation.

          A milestone was reached in February, 1904, when the administration of the forests was transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture. In making this transfer, President Roosevelt stressed the fact that trees are in reality a growing crop and should be treated as such. And this argument has stood so far since it was first advanced, and our national forests have been administered under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture.

          Speaking of this period, Elers Koch, who has first-hand knowledge of much of the early-day Forest Service history in this region, says: “Many of Pinchot’s young foresters who had been examining forest lands in 1903 and 1904 were made inspectors and sent into the field in 1905 and 1906. I covered Wyoming and part of Montana during that period.

          “In 1905 ranger examinations were held all over the West. I held examinations here in Missoula, and in Bozeman and Neihart as well. A class of 25 or 30 turned out in each place, including everything from barbers to sheepherders, but some mighty good men came from those examinations. In addition to a written examination they had to pass in compass and pacing, timber cruising, chopping down a tree, packing a horse, riding, and rifle and pistol shooting!


Missoula in 1905

          “The Lolo, Missoula, and Hellgate forests were established in 1905, and E. A. Sherman was put in charge of them. In 1906 I took over as supervisor of the Bitter Root, Lolo and Missoula forests. C. C. Hall became supervisor of the Hellgate, with headquarters at Anaconda. In 1908 a further split was made. I took the Lolo, W. W. White the Bitter Root, and Dave Kinney the Missoula. The old Hellgate was split between the Missoula and the Deer Lodge forests.”


National Forest Regions Set Up

          “Missoula is a rough place, why not choose Portland or Denver?” Such was the comment made to Oscar M. Wold, now regional fiscal agent, when in the fall of 1908 he was given the choice of a headquarters town in the West. This was at the time the national forests of the country were divided into regions, or districts as they were then called.

          “A number of us then working in the Treasury department were told we were to be transferred to the Forest Service for transfer to the field,” says Mr. Wold. “ I had it in the back of my head that I would like to come to Missoula, but when I heard the remark my chief made about this wild, Western town, I changed my mind. However, things finally worked out so that I came here anyway, and I’ve never been sorry.

          “Three of us were assigned here, and arrived on the same train. The offices were then in the old Hammond building, which stood on the site of the present Hammond – Arcade building.

          “Those were the good old horse – and – buggy days,” said Mr. Wold, “only we didn’t use buggies – we rode horseback. Few of the men were married, and we spent long hours at the office. But when we did play, we played hard: and one of our principal forms of recreation was horseback riding. We rode all over the country about Missoula and came to love it. One of our favorite rides was up Woods gulch, to the new ranger station that had just been built by Frank Haun, ranger on the Lolo national forest.”

          The writer remembers the old Woods Gulch station. It stood near the Marshall Creek divide, about a mile and a half up the gulch. Like so many of the older ranger stations which were built when men used horses for travel and had to live near the job in order to get back home once in a while, the Woods Gulch station was abandoned when car travel made fewer stations serve the purpose of many. About 1919 permission was given to a rancher to use the logs of the old station for building purposes, and little now remains to mark the site.


Fiery Baptism

          The fury of the holocaust which swept the western part of Montana and Northern Idaho in August, 1910, can hardly be realized except by those who were in the country during the tragic days of August 21 and 22 when 87 men were burned. Elers Koch who was in the thick of the fight gives this story:

          “No one can claim to be a real old-timer in the Forest Service unless he went through the 1910 fire season. We have had bad fires since, but nothing has approached the terrific burning conditions of the two days of August 21 and 22, 1910. After a long drought period beginning in March, conditions became more and more critical. Springs dried up, and the fuels in the forest were ready to ignite almost spontaneously. Dry lightning storms scattered numerous fires through the undeveloped wilderness country of North Idaho and Western Montana. The inadequate forces of the Forest Service battled the flames stubbornly through July, getting some of the fires and being driven back on others.

          “Finally the climax came. With the humidity down to almost nothing, the southwest fire wind from the Snake river desert whipped into a gale that lasted two days. Hundreds of fires that had been burning for days picked up and joined in the advance of the terrific sweep of fire which roared out of the wilderness forests of the Clearwater, St. Joe and Coeur d’Alene country in Idaho, across the Bitter Root mountains into Montana to a distance of 40 or 50 miles. The sky turned first a ghastly, ominous yellow, then darkness shut down in the middle of the afternoon. When all was over a large part of the town of Wallace had burned. Saltese, Haugan, Deborgia, and numerous ranches and ranger stations were left in ashes. Eighty-seven men lost their lives in the flames. Game animals were killed by the thousands and the stream bottoms were white with the bellies of dead trout. Billions of feet of fine timber had burned, and millions of acres left a blackened waste. Missoula was filled with refugees, from the Coeur d’Alene branch who escaped on the last train out.

          “I was supervisor of the Lolo forest at the time. In the night of August 21 the telephone bell at my bedside awakened me. It was the ranger Kootke at Wallace. “Mr. Koch,” he said, “the fires have all gone wild. The flames are just breaking into Wallace. I don’t know where my family is, and my men and pack strings are all out in the path of the fire, and I am afraid many of them can’t escape alive.” A little later Ranger Haun called from Saltese. He said the hills were all afire around town and he had 200 firefighters there trying to save the town. Just then communication ceased. The Coeur d’Alene lines were down. In the morning I went out with a special Northern Pacific train down the Coeur d’Alene branch to see what could be done. About 3 in the afternoon we pulled into Deborgia. The head of the big fire had just reached the town, and some of the buildings were afire. It was black-dark and everybody was carrying lanterns. We loaded the residents of the town on the train and started back down. Between Henderson and St. Regis the whole canyon was afire on both sides and the train had to run through it. The heat was so great that we couldn’t stand in the open door of the box car, but fortunately we made it through to St. Regis. About midnight weather conditions changed. The wind continued to blow, but the humidity picked up, and the fires made little progress the next day. The night of August 22 came a general rain.

          “It is possible that such burning conditions might again occur, but with the present organization of the Forest Service it is not likely that sufficient fires will ever again be uncontrolled at one time to build up such a widespread conflagration.”

          Since the great fire year of 1910 there have been other bad fire seasons, but nothing as disastrous from the standpoint of the loss of life and resources. Nineteen nineteen, 1929, and 1930 were bad years. This year, 1940, presented one of the worst recent situations, with little rainfall in the spring and early summer and lightning storms in July which set hundreds of fires on successive days.


Progress in Fire Control

          But through the decades sine 1910 the methods of meeting the fire problem have become increasingly efficient and losses have been reduced in proportion. Through scientific research methods of measuring and even predicting burning conditions in the woods have been developed.

          From 770 lookout houses 75 per cent of the forest area comes within the direct vision of keen-eyed lookout men. Fires sighted from these lookouts can be located with a high degree of accuracy for distance. Seven thousand miles of roads passable to trucks and cars, and 33,000 miles of trails make it possible to get men and supplies to most fires in the back country in a fraction of the time formerly necessary. At the central remount depot in the Nine Mile valley, 30 miles west of Missoula, pack strings are trained and held on call for fire duty throughout the summer. High speed vans whisk these pack strings to road ends nearest fires where they are needed. Each van has a sleeping compartment for the packer, so that he may arrive fresh on the job after a night run.

          Great strides have been made in improving equipment. Take the smokechaser’s pack, for example. Only a few years ago forest firemen started for a fire with a pack weighing 54 pounds; today he goes fully equipped with tools and grub only 17 pounds! This has been accomplished largely by inventing streamlined tools to replace the old-style tools which were cumbersome and ill suited for quick travel in the hills. Compact, high-speed pumps weighing only 70 pounds and capable of delivering 60 gallons of water a minute are widely used. The Bosworth trencher, a light gasoline-driven machine which can be operated by three men is capable of building as much fire trench in a day as 30 men with hand tools in certain types of country. Portable radios, nesting mess equipment, paper sleeping bags, - well one might go on and on in telling of things which have been invented or adapted to help lick forest fires.


Airplanes Big Help

          In 1910 airplane travel in the mountains was unheard of. Today we are depending more and more on planes for scouting fires, transporting men and supplies in emergencies, and dropping food and equipment to camps which could not be reached quickly enough by pack strings. Yes, and even water in 10-gallon milk cans attached to chutes, is dropped in extreme emergencies, as was done this summer to a camp cut off by fire high on the slopes of Turner mountain on the Kootenai national forest.

          No story of the use of planes in fighting forest fires in Region No. 1 would be complete without mention of the two brothers, Bob and Dick Johnson, and the aerial map pilot, Dick Vance. Their experience in mountain flying, which under some conditions appears to the uninitiated more like stunting than flying, has been of indispensable value to the service. Where others have said planes could not go, they have gone to carry aid in emergencies. Their skill and good judgment have helped immeasurably by successfully scouting rapidly spreading fires from the air, thus obtaining information priceless to the ground crews. In July, 1940, alone, they dropped over 300 tons of supplies and equipment to camps from the air. To Dick Johnson, goes a large measure of credit for the successful training of the parachute jumpers this year. Yes, these fliers have an enviable record! *


[Dick Johnson, the elder of the Johnson brothers, was killed in March of 1945 while flying south of Jackson Hole, Wyoming. He had contracted with Wyoming wildlife officials to count elk and was caught in a snowstorm. He had already survived a plane crash at Big Prairie in 1938, and another the following year at a Bitterroot fire in a canyon called Roaring Lion.]


Growing Timber

          But in pointing with pride to the strides made in protecting our forests from fire we should not overlook accomplishments along other lines. Timber being a crop, one naturally wonders what may have been done toward growing more and better trees.

          When the national forests were first created there was very little accurate information as to their resources. But in the ensuing years the Forest Service has been able to make a pretty comprehensive inventory of what they contain. We know where valuable bodies of merchantable timber are located, and have a fairly good idea of what the costs of logging will amount to. We have built roads to some areas to make timber accessible to market, in many cases assuring that decadent stands would be sold and cut before they became a total loss. In some cases we have found that the life of whole communities may in the future be dependent on certain stands of national forest timber being available to keep their mills running. Wherever possible cutting schemes have been planned to provide a continuous supply of trees to fill such needs.

          “Sustained yield” the forester calls it. The term is easy to understand if you think of it as “perpetual supply.” And the forester provides for a perpetual supply of timber by cutting at a rate no faster than the trees on a particular area are growing. That is the basis of national forest timber management. But timber is a slow growing crop and it takes many years to bring experiments in cutting practices to a point where the final results can be seen and appreciated by the average layman.

          There is in the foothills of the upper Bitter Root valley an outstanding example of the results of good timber management. On Lick creek, a tributary of the river near Darby, the Forest Service sold a considerable body of ponderosa pine timber to the A. C. M. company in 1908 and 1909. Cutting was done to conform with a plan outlined by the Forest Service looking to another crop, rather than the largest possible immediate yield which might have been obtained by cutting off all the trees.

          Pictures of this area were taken at the time it was logged. Fourteen years later the writer went back to this old timber sale area in company with W. W. White, who helped supervise the original cutting. Our purpose was to take pictures again from the points occupied by the first photographer.


Difference Shown

          It was interesting to note what had taken place during the 14-year period. In some places trees which had been mere seedlings when the larger trees were cut had become thrifty youngsters which changed entirely the look of the landscape. In others, thickets of trees higher than one’s head made it impossible to retake the old views to advantage. The older trees which had been left for seed had scattered their crop and produced more seedlings. There was little evidence of the spots where the brush had been piled and burned. The whole area seemed to speak of thrifty productivity, and lacked entirely that depressing aspect of despoliation common to areas which have been ruthlessly stripped of the crop and scourged by slash fires.

          I have visited the area several times since to take pictures and still find it an inspiring example of timber managed as a crop rather than as an asset to be cut for gain with no thought for the future. [See K. D. Swan’s photos online -http://www.flickr.com/photos/fsnorthernregion/collections/72157626281367758/]


Silvicultural Problems to Solve

          Ponderosa pine, white pine, and lodgepole; Douglas fir and larch; white fir, spruce, hemlock; all part of the great crop which is growing on the national forests of our region. Each species with individual characteristics which must be considered in solving the many problems of forest management, problems to which we have found reasonable answers during the last 40 years; baffling problems which still may take a century to solve; problems wonderfully fascinating because they deal with growing things and because to solve them man must understand and work with nature. Silviculture, the growing of trees, is a science fundamental to the welfare of the nation!

          Reforestation early became an important activity in region No. 1. To date almost 100,000 acres have been planted to young trees.

          In speaking of the Savenac nursery, which was really established under his supervision although he is too modest to admit it, Mr. Koch says:

          “The Savenac nursery, near Haugan, 100 miles west of Missoula, is one of the oldest of the Forest Service tree nurseries. The first seed beds were installed in 1909, though the ranger station site selected and a log cabin put up in 1908. At that time the only means of access was by the Coeur d’Alene branch of the Northern Pacific. The wagon road through the Coeur d’Alene was then just about as Captain Mullan left it in 1960, barely passable for a buckboard.

          “The 1910 fire swept the nursery, and burned all the buildings and other improvements, and at the same time greatly increased the need for the nursery to furnish planting stock for the burned and devastated slopes around it. Since that time the nursery has supplied from three million to eight million trees a year for planting in Western Montana and Idaho.”

          The 1910 fires gave an impetus to planting. Although some of the vast area burned would come up to trees naturally, some would not. And in the years following 1910 successive fires burned hotly in the brush and fallen snags of the original burn. It was necessary to plant these areas if they were to produce at all.


Forest Recreation

          Early pleasure seekers to the national forests took their recreation in the rough. Because there were few roads, those who would penetrate far into the hinterland went with horses. Fishing and camping trips for the family were annual rather than weekly affairs, usually accomplished with horse-drawn vehicles. There was little tourist travel from a distance. This came later with the building of the highways over which a car could travel without being shaken to pieces.

          Those days should not be belittled, however. They were the days when almost anyone could catch all the fish he wanted. There was a joy in following rough wagon tracks through forest which never been touched by an axe. Speed boats did not violate the solitude of mountain lakes. Forest recreation in those days had pioneering aspects; there were hardships, yes – but compensations as well.

          The development of campgrounds and other recreational facilities on the national forests have been brought about by increased recreational use of these forests due to better roads and increased car travel. They answer a public demand; they fill a legitimate public need.


Rock Creek Development Typical

          Campground development on Rock creek is so typical of campground development on the forests everywhere in recent years that it seems worth citing here. Many will remember Rock creek in the old days – say about 1914. Then, as now, it attracted many fishermen and hunters. There was a rough road as far as Ranch creek, 12 miles up, and not much beyond. Those who went farther went by trail.

          It was quite an undertaking to reach Rock creek in those days. One took the Butte “stub” in the morning, and returned by the same late in the evening. The round-trip fare for a family party was a considerable item. If one wanted to camp on the creek it became necessary to check a bedroll in the baggage car. All in all the trip required considerable forethought and planning.  One did not sleep late of a Sunday morning and return in time to take in the movies!

          In 1925 the Forest Service extended the road up the Rock Creek valley above Ranch creek, making this fine recreational section accessible by car. And in no time at all travel in that direction increased many times over. Hundreds flocked into the area every week-end for fishing, picnicking, and camping. More and more families got the habit of going back frequently to favorite spots.

          There were not many facilities for camping at first: a few stones gathered in a circle constituted a fireplace; one sat on a log or on the ground to eat; considerable ingenuity had to be exercised in the disposal of garbage and other refuse.

          It was to meet the needs of this growing crowd of recreationists on Rock creek that the Forest Service developed the series of camp sites which have given pleasure to so many during the last few years. Harry’s Flat, Bitter Root Flats, Rock Creek campground – these have become favorite retreats for more and more people, and are filled to capacity many nights during the summer season. Tables, benches, fireplaces, garbage pits, safe water, and other conveniences are provided. Things are arranged so that each individual group of people is assured a degree of privacy. What clearing has been done to increase the size of the various areas has been done in accordance with well-thought-out plans and conveniences have been designed to fit into the landscape rather than to disfigure it.



          The Rock Creek camps were built by CCC or WPA labor. Clearing and thinning, the construction of entrance roads, hewing and setting rustic tables and benches, and many other jobs have been done, and done well by these organizations.

          But for those who like their recreation with a pioneer flavor there are wilderness areas. Realizing that in the future it will become increasingly more difficult to get away from roads and other signs of civilization, the Forest Service has designated certain sections notable for their scenery and wilderness characteristics to be kept in their virgin state for all time. In these wilderness areas, as they are called, no hotels, camps, or roads will be built, and only such trails as are absolutely necessary to make them accessible to foot or horse travel. There are 10 such areas in the Northern Rocky mountain region at present, totaling approximately three million acres.



The Civilian Conservation Corps

          The creation of the CCC in 1933 was an epoch-making event for the Forest Service. Here was a vast amount of labor available for jobs in the forests which before had been impossible because of lack of funds. At the same time the service would assume a responsibility in training the boys, and giving them experience which they could cash in on when their enlistment period was over. It seemed a momentous situation at the time, all the more so as the emergency nature of the program made it necessary to plan and act quickly.

          Now, just about seven and a half years later, we can look back with considerable satisfaction at hurdles cleared, and sum up with pride the work accomplished by these boys we have had in training. A cross-section of Young America, they have been a fine lot to work with. They have given a lot to us: we in turn hope we have done something for them.

          What have the CCC’s done for us here in the northern Rocky Mountain region? Among other things they have constructed 2,500 miles of secondary roads, 3,000 miles of telephone line, and 400 bridges. They have built 250 lookout houses, and towers. They have planted young trees on 21,000 acres of denuded land. They have spent 350,000 man days fighting fire. They have protected nearly half a million acres of valuable white pine timber from the ravages of blister rust by eradicating species of ribes. And all this since 1933.

          In considering the work done by the CCC it is only fair to mention several serious setbacks experienced in carrying out a well-rounded program of forest work with labor from this source. To begin with, because of the CCC there has been a serious cut in regular appropriations to the Forest Service, which has hampered the progress on jobs which could not well be handled by this organization. The work done by the boys is generally concentrated to areas within easy distance of their camps, and the result is that important projects on more remote parts of the forests have of necessity been somewhat neglected.


Regional Overhead

          Five men have served as district or regional foresters in Missoula since 1908. They are as follows: W. B. Greeley, 1908 to 1911; F. A. Silcox, 1911 to 1917; R. H. Rutledge, 1917 to 1921; Fred Morrell, 1921 to 1929; and Evan W. Kelley, who has been in charge since 1929. Two of these men became Chiefs of the Forest Service – Greeley and Silcox. Another region No. 1 man also held the post of chief, R. Y. Stuart, who served in Missoula as assistant district forester from 1909 to 1913. *


[No mention is made in this article of a young forester, Bob Marshall, who had briefly worked in Missoula’s Forest Service Experiment Station in the mid-1920’s. By 1937 Marshall had risen to the post of Chief of the Division of Recreation and Lands in Washington D.C. and had written and advocated extensively for protection of wilderness areas throughout the nation. Less than a year after Marshall’s untimely death in 1939, The Bob Marshall Wilderness was established in Montana.] 


Expanding Quarters

          On completion of the present postoffice building in 1913, the Forest Service offices moved from the Hammond Arcade building to quarters in the new building. But the organization soon grew to a size which made it necessary to rent space outside. In 1929 an annex to the postoffice building was erected. This annex and the original building then served the greater part of the Forest Service, the Federal court, the Bureau of Public Roads, and several minor Federal agencies. The Forest Service still found it necessary to rent some space in other buildings.

          When the emergency relief programs were launched, the Forest Service found its activities tremendously broadened, and its personnel increased in the same ratio, overnight as it were. Suitable space had to be rented in several buildings widely scattered over town. It became more and more of a problem to keep things coordinated and running efficiently. Finally the new Federal Building annex was finished a little over two years ago, and the Forest Service at last found itself in adequate quarters. By careful planning and assignment of space all offices have found room for their needs.

          The old carbarn property in South Missoula was recently purchased from the Montana Power company for a central repair shop. Here heavy equipment, such as bulldozers, shovels, and trucks are repaired by a crew of expert mechanics. During the peak season about 40 men are employed. This shop also handles work for agencies such as the regular Army, all branches of the CCC, the Public Roads administration, Soil Conservation service, and the Montana State Part service.

          At the South Side garage, on South Higgins avenue, travel cars and trucks for immediate use are kept in live storage. A limited amount of fire fighting equipment is also kept on hand. However, in times of emergency like that experienced in July, this stock is built up by material brought in by motor van or rail from the large central warehouse in Spokane.


Looking Ahead

          Today as never before there is coming to the people of this country a realization of the importance of proper use of our land – the land, which alone can supply us perpetually with those material resources vital to the nation. The demand that all of our forest lands be handled for the benefit of future generations as well as the present is growing by leaps and bounds. And public sentiment when once aroused is a powerful thing.

          Can the Forest Service help in the attainment of this national objective? We think that it can and will.

Last Updated on Saturday, 29 December 2012 16:43